General Information
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The Republic of Azerbaijan lies in the borderlands of Asia and Europe. It is situated in the south-eastern part of the Southern Caucasus and shares borders in the north with the Russian Federation, in the south with the Islamic Republic of Iran, in the west with Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, and in the east its neighbors across the Caspian Sea are Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
Country Name: Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası)  
Capital: Baku (Bakı) with a population of 1 811 000 (according to census)
State Language: Azerbaijani 
Religion: Religion is separated from the State and all religions are equal before the law 
Population: The population is 9 000 000 people (January, 2010) 
Monetary Unit: Manat (1 AZN = 1.20 USD as of December, 2009) 
National Holidays 
January 01-04 New Year
March 8 Women's Day
March 20-24 Novruz Bayramı (Celebration of Spring)
May 9 Day of Victory over Fascism
May 28 Republic Day
June 15 National Salvation Day
June 26 Armed Forces Day
September   9-10 Ramathan
October 18 National Independence Day
November 9 Day of Flag
November 12 Constitution Day
November 17 National Revival Day
November 16-17 Gurban Bayramı
December 31 Day of Solidarity of Azerbaijanis throughout the World
Memorable Days:  
January 20 Day of Shehids' (Martyrs) Remembrance
February 26 Day of Khojali Remembrance
March 31 Genocide of Azerbaijanis 
Area: 86,600 sq km 
Length of Land Boundaries: 2,646 km  
Borders with Neighbouring Countries: Armenia - 1007 km, Georgia - 480 km, Iran - 756 km, Russia - 390 km, Turkey - 13 km 
Administrative Division  
The Republic of Azerbaijan consists Autonomous Republic - Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikası), 65 regions, 69 cities, 13 urban regions, 130 settlements of urban type and 4354 rural settlements. 
Major Cities
Baku, Ganja, Khankendi, Mingechevir, Naftalan, Sumqaıt, Naxchıvan, Shirvan.  
Absheron, Aghdam, Aghdash, Aghjabedi, Aghstafa, Aghsu, Astara, Balakan, Beilagan, Barda, Bilasuvar, Cabraıl, Calilabad, Dashkəesen, Devəchi, Fizuli, Gedebey, Goranboy, Geoychay, Gioy giol, Hajıgabul, Xachmaz, Khizi, Khojavend, Khocalı, Imishli, Ismayıllı, Kalbajar, Kurdamir, Gakh, Gazakh, Gabala, Gobustan, Guba, Gubadly, Gusar, Lachın, Lankaran, Lerik, Masally, Neftchala, Oghuz, Saatly, Sabirabad, Salyan, Samukh, Siyazan, Shamakhy, Shamkir, Shaki, Shusha, Tartar, Tovuz, Ujar, Yardimly, Yevlakh, Zagatala, Zangilan, Zardab, Babek, Julfa, Ordubad, Sadarak, Shahbuz, Sharur.  
Form of Government: Azerbaijanian state is democratic, legal, secular, unitary republic. State power is based on the principle of division of powers: Milli Majlis (Parliament) exercises legislative power; executive power belongs to the President; and law courts exercise judicial power.  
Legislative Power: Milli Majlis - one chamber body comprising 125 deputies, elected by direct elections for a 5 year term.   
Head of State: The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is the Head of the Azerbaijanian state. The President is elected for a 5-year term by way of general, direct and equal elections, with free, personal and secret ballot. Executive power in the Azerbaijan Republic belongs to the President.   
Head of Government: The President by consent of Milli Majlis appoints Prime-minister. For implementation of executive powers the President establishes Cabinet of Ministers. Cabinet of Ministers is subordinate to the President and reports to him.   
Judicial Power: Judicial power in Azerbaijan is implemented by law courts. Judicial power is implemented through the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Courts of Appeal, ordinary and other specialized law courts.  
Following a referendum on November 12, 1995, the new Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted and entered into force on December 5, 1995. The country's basic law was developed in line with the fundamental principles and norms of international law. 
Continuing the centuries' long traditions of statehood, and taking as a basis the principles expressed in the Constitutional Act "On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan", desiring to provide prosperity and welfare for the whole society and each individual, wishing to establish freedom and security, understanding the responsibility before the past, present and future generations, using the right of its sovereignty the Constitution declares solemnly its following intentions: 
  • Protect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan;
  • Provide a democratic system within the framework of the Constitution;
  • Achieve the establishment of a civil society;
  • Build a secular state based on the rule of law as an expression of the will of the nation;
  • Provide worthy living standards for everybody in conformity with just economic and social order;
  • Remain faithful to universal human values, to live in friendship, peace and freedom with all the nations of the world and cooperate with them for this purpose.
  • As stipulated by article 1 of the Constitution, "In the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijani people shall be the sole source of State power". Under article 2 of the Constitution, the people of Azerbaijan shall exercise their sovereign right directly through nationwide voting (referendums) and through representatives elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by free, secret and personal ballot.
  • Promotion of the establishment of pluralistic democracy based on market economy and the rule of law.
  • Conduct of an independent foreign policy aimed at the soonest restoration of sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan over its territory.
  • Elimination of threats and risks to the security, political independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan.
  • Peaceful settlement of the conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan through negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on the basis of the principles of the OSCE Lisbon Summit.
  • Elimination of the consequences of military aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.
  • Development of good-neighbourly and mutually advantageous relations with neighbouring countries.
  • Promotion of security and stability in the region.
  • Prevention of illegal arms and other transfers in the region.
  • Adherence to existing global non-proliferation regimes and establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Southern Caucasus.
  • Demilitarization of the Caspian Sea basin.
  • Integration into European and Transatlantic security and cooperation structures, including NATO, EU, WEU, CE.
  • Facilitation of the development of various sectors of the country's economy with due consideration of Azerbaijan's crucial geostrategic location at the crossroads between the East and West.
  • Development of the Eurasian Transport Corridor of which Azerbaijan is a part.
Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was born on 10 May 1923 in the city of Nakhchivan of Azerbaijan. In 1939, after graduating from the Nakhchivan Pedagogical School he studied at the architectural department of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy). The incipient war impeded to complete his education.
Since 1941, Heydar Aliyev heads the department at the People Commissariat of Internal Affairs of Nakhchivan ASSR and on 1944 was sent to work at the state security bodies. Heydar Aliyev, working since that time in the security bodies, since 1964 held the post of deputy chairman, and since 1967 - chairman of the Committee of State Security under the Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan Republic, and he was conferred the rank of lieutenant general. In these years, he received special higher education in Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and in 1957, he graduated from the history department of Azerbaijan State University.
Being elected at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan in July 1969 as the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev heads the Republic. In December 1982, Heydar Aliyev has been elected as Alternate member of Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union, and appointed at the post of the First Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR and became one of the leaders of the USSR. During twenty years, Heydar Aliyev was the Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and for five years was Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In October 1987, Heydar Aliyev, as a sign of protest against the policy pursued by Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and personally the Secretary General Michael Gorbachev, resigned from his post.
In bound with the tragedy, committed on 20 January 1990 in Baku by the soviet troops, appearing on the next day at the Azerbaijan Representation in Moscow with a statement, demanded to punish the organizers and executors of the crime, committed against the people of Azerbaijan. As a sign of protest against the hypocritical policy of leadership of the USSR, in connection with the critical conflict accrued in Nagorny Karabakh, in July 1991, he left the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
By return in July 1990 to Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev has lived at first in Baku, then in Nakhchivan, and on the same year he was elected as the Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. In 1991-1993s, he held the post of Chairman of the Supreme Mejlis of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In 1992, at the constituent congress of the "Yeni Azerbaijan" Party in Nakhchivan, Heydar Aliyev, was elected as the Chairman of the Party.
In May-June 1993, when, as the result of extreme tension of the governmental crisis, the country was at the verge of civil war and loss of independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring to power Heydar Aliyev. The then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku. On 15 June 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan, and on 24 July - on resolution of the Milli Mejlis, he managed to fulfill powers of the President of Azerbaijan Republic.
On October 3, 1993, as the result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the President of Azerbaijan Republic. On October 11, 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 76,1 percent of the votes, he was re-elected as the President of Azerbaijan Republic. Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, Heydar Aliyev relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.
Heydar Aliyev was conferred a number of international awards, the title of honorary doctor of numerous countries, and other high honors. He was conferred for four times with the Lenin Order, the Order of Krasnaya Zvezda and many medals, and twice Hero of Socialist Labor, was awarded by Orders and medals of many foreign states.
Historical destiny of Azerbaijan, covering the period of over the thirty latest years, was inseparably linked with the name of Heydar Aliyev. Revival of the people during these years in all spheres of its socio-political, economic and cultural life is connected just with his name.
During the said period of his leadership, Heydar Aliyev helped his native land Azerbaijan, the progress that he persistently strived towards, the rich culture, great historical past with which he was proud of, and on the coming generations on whom he was concerned, to overcome as a state heavy and sharp ordeals of time.
Being an outstanding politician and statesmen, indisputable leader of the nation, he was a live legend, and therefore the Heydar Aliyev phenomena always attracted attention, the admiration rising political activity of this nationwide leader of the Azerbaijanis of world was widely covered both in the Republican and world press.
In June 1993, when the people of Azerbaijan believed that the national statehood was on the edge of fall, when there began the hardest days, it insistently demanded change of the existing power, and since that time relied its destiny on Heydar Aliyev. Heydar Aliyev, seeing misfortune of his nation, accepted the invitation and returned to great politics in Azerbaijan. The people met the return of Heydar Aliyev with a hope and joy, and this day went down the history of the independent Azerbaijan as the Day of National Salvation.

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